Tag Archives: Digestion

IntestiNEW to Strengthen Your Digestive Lining

Updated 3/9/2016.


Our gut microbiomes, the several pounds of micro-organisms living inside our intestines and often referred to as Our Friends with Benefits,  affect pretty much every aspect of  our health – keeping us well or making us sick.


(Source: www.goodgirlgogogo.com)
(Source: www.goodgirlgogogo.com)
I wrote about INCREASED GUT PERMEABILITY – CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES in a 10 May 2015 post. Here’s part of that article as background for appreciating the value of a supplement called IntestiNEW that strengthens the intestine’s mucosal lining, where our gut microbiomes reside:




The human digestive tract runs from the mouth at the top to the anus at the other end. Foreign matter (food) is taken in and partially broken down by chewing in the mouth. It then travels down through the esophagus to the stomach and from there into the small and large intestines, where it is selectively digested. During this trip, various phases of digestion take place  and nutrients are extracted and absorbed. The liver, gall bladder and pancreas, organs that aid in the digestive process, are located along the length of the GI tract.
The total length of the GI tract varies from person to person. In an adult male the range is 20 to 40 feet. On average, the small intestine in adults is 22 feet long and the large intestine is 5 feet.
As you can intuit, a lot could go wrong during that long trip – and much of that depends on the quality of what you deliver to your mouth as ‘food’.
(Source: sanjosefuncmed.com)
(Source: sanjosefuncmed.com)


You can see the location of the mucosal layer (called ‘mucous coat’ in the diagram below) and the intestinal villi in this cross section of the human small intestine. The empty space in the center, just below the villi (the spikes you see in the image of a healthy mucosal membrane in the image to the left above),  is called the lumen, the tube in which food travels through the intestines.


(Source: MyHumanBody.ca)





(Source: scdlifestyle.com)
(Source: scdlifestyle.com)
Increased gut permeability – also known as hyper-permeable intestines or “leaky gut” – describes the intestinal lining’s having become more porous than it should be so the process of what is allowed out into the body no longer functions properly.  Larger, undigested food molecules and other bad things (such as yeasts, toxins, and other forms of waste  that normally would continue on and get excreted through the anus) flow freely through these too-large holes in the intestinal lining and enter the bloodstream, where they don’t belong and are treated as dangerous invaders.
The  gut’s mucosal layer is thin, delicate – and very important. This is where our probiotic bacteria live, so degrading it also degrades the strength of our immune systems. The probiotics residing in the gut mucosal layer make up 70-90% of the human immune system.
Damage to the gut’s mucosal layer leads to a whole range of serious problems as the body tries to cope with the invaders being released into the bloodstream. Once this lining has become disturbed, allowing problematic things to flow through it into the blood stream, a cycle of chronic irritation begins, leading to chronic inflammation in the body and a whole series of autoimmune conditions.
It is well-known that the composition of the gut lining and its microbiota changes during animal development and can be influenced by environmental factors such as diet, lifestyle, and habitat. (Barker, 2013), (Conlon, 2014) & (Renew Life, undated)
So you can see the importance of keeping your gut lining, where those critters live, in good shape.





(Source: www.stemcell.com)
(Source: www.stemcell.com)
The thin lining of our intestines is semi-permeable: a healthy lining membrane  allows nutrients to pass from the intestines into the bloodstream and prevents toxins, pathogens, and undigested food from exiting the digestive tract too early. When the lining becomes chronically damaged, allowing toxins, pathogens, and undigested food to  enter the bloodstream, chronic inflammation occurs in the body and many negative, autoimmune health conditions may ensue. (Renew Life, undated)
See AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: How they develop and how to put them in remission (Hardin, 2014) for more information.
A healthy intestinal lining serves many functions, most critical among them:
  • Continuing the digestive processing of food after it leaves  the stomach
  • Absorbing nutrients from this partially digested food
  • Preventing harmful bacteria and undigested food particles from entering the bloodstream
Like our skin, the delicate mucosal lining of our small and large intestines sloughs off a layer of cells every 3-5 days and produces new cells to maintain its semi-permeable state. This process requires the amino acid L-Glutamine. (Renew Life, undated).
“Small populations of adult stem cells are responsible for the remarkable ability of the epithelial lining of the intestine to be efficiently renewed and repaired throughout life.” (Barker, 2013)
The human body’s GI tract is lined with mucosal tissues primarily comprised of epithelial cells attached to the underlying membrane. Tiny, finger-like projections called villi protrude from the intestinal walls and greatly increase their absorptive and surface areas.
“Digested nutrients (including sugars and amino acids) pass into the villi through diffusion. Circulating blood then carries these nutrients away.  Unlike the mucosal tissue of the inner surface of the eyelids or the mouth, the epithelial cells which line the inside of the stomach are exposed to much harsher conditions, e.g., acid (i.e., hydrochloric acid), sometimes alcohol, enzymes (e.g., pepsin) for digesting food and waste generated therefrom. Mucous secretion essentially protects the cells on the inside of the stomach and duodenum from damage by acid or enzymes, for example by presenting bicarbonate to neutralize some of the effects of acid on the stomach’s inner lining, as well as inhibitors to block the enzymatic activity. Once the mucous secretions of the epithelial cells stop, the inner lining of the stomach or duodenum would eventually be eroded by the combined action of acid and enzymes, leading to ulcer.” (MEBO, 2009)




IntestiNew is a dietary supplement designed and produced by Renew Life to soothe the digestive system and benefit the health of the mucosal lining of the intestines. It is available as a powder or in capsules.
intestinew-1The capsule form contains L-glutamine, N-acetyl D-glucosamine, gamma oryzanol, cranesbill root, ginger root, marigold flower, marshmallow root, vegetable fiber, and water.


The powder form contains the same ingredients with the exception of the vegetable fiber and water.


The glucosamine, L-glutamine, and the herbs in IntestiNew soothe and support the integrity of the intestinal lining.  The gamma oryzanol, a natural extract of rice oat bran, delivers essential antioxidant benefits to the digestive system. (Holt, 2016)
Both forms of the supplement are gluten free and contain no artificial ingredients.
Women who are pregnant, nursing, or trying to conceive are advised to consult their physicians before taking IntestiNEW, as are people taking pharmaceutical medications or having a medical condition.  The supplements contain an ingredient derived from crustacean shells (shrimp, lobster, and/or crab) so aren’t suitable for people with a shellfish allergy.



Although I couldn’t find any scientific papers on IntestiNEW, it has been well reviewed by customers on Amazon, iHerb, The Vitamin Shoppe, Vitacost,  and National Nutrition. I second those reviews: Since I’ve been taking IntestiNEW, I’ve seen a big improvement in my digestive health. I started with a scoop (5.4 grams) stirred into an eight ounce glass of filtered water before breakfast and now take two capsules before each meal, with water)


Some of the many ways our gut bacteria affect our health:
(Source: www.huffingtonpost.com)
(Source: www.huffingtonpost.com)
My thanks to David Miller, MD, Supplements Specialist at Life Thyme Market in New York City, for recommending IntestiNew to me.





Barker, N. (2013). Adult intestinal stem cells: critical drivers of epithelial homeostasis and regeneration.  Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 15:  19–33. See: http://www.nature.com/nrm/journal/v15/n1/full/nrm3721.html

Conlon, M.A. et al. (2015). The Impact of Diet and Lifestyle on Gut Microbiota and Human Health. Nutrients. 7(1): 17–44. See: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4303825/

Hardin, J.R. (26 October 2014). AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: How they develop and how to put them in remission. See: http://allergiesandyourgut.com/2014/10/26/autoimmune-diseases-develop-put-remission/

Hardin, J.R. (10 May 2015). INCREASED GUT PERMEABILITY – CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES. See: http://allergiesandyourgut.com/2015/05/10/increased-gut-permeability-causes-consequences/

Holt, L. (2016). IntestiNew Reviewed: Does IntestiNew Work? Daily Health Answers. See: https://www.dailyhealthanswers.com/intestinew-reviewed.html

MEBO. (2009). Regeneration of Gastro- Intestinal Tract. Human Body Regeneration Sciences. See: http://en.mebo.com/about/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID=1

Renew Life. (undated). INTESTINEW: Natural Ingredients Used Traditionally to Support a Healthy Intestinal Lining. See: http://www.renewlife.com/media/spec_sheets/SpecSheetRNLIntestiNew.pdf



© Copyright 2016. Joan Rothchild Hardin. All Rights Reserved.


DISCLAIMER:  Nothing on this site or blog is intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.


Giulia Enders Explains Digestion

Updated 6/23/2015.


Giulia Enders

(Source: ihaveasimplelife.wordpress.com)
(Source: ihaveasimplelife.wordpress.com)


This post is about something we’ve all needed: a charming Millennial named Giulia Enders’ entertaining and simple  explanation of how digestion works.  She’s a doctoral student at the Institute for Microbiology in Frankfurt, Germany. In 2012 her presentation about the gut won first prize at the Science Slam in Berlin – and then deservedly went viral on YouTube.
I highly recommend watching Darm mit Charme (Gut Charm). It’ll crack you up while you’re learning some very useful information about how your body works.
Winning the Science Slam prize led to an invitation to write a book. Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body’s Most Underrated Organ has become, again deservedly, an international best seller. It’s now been published in 30 languages!





This Amazon review of the book says it all:

Best popular science writing EVER – a brilliant, witty treasure trove of insanely useful information

“I don’t believe I’ve ever learned more useful information per page than in “Gut” — and I’m trained as a doctor! The whole time I’m reading this, I’m shaking my head, thinking, “How come we weren’t taught that in med school?” A longer, more thorough review is forthcoming, but in the meantime, if you are a fan of eating or have ever eaten in your lifetime, ever had a “gut feeling” about anything, or happen to possess a digestive tract, you need to read this. Is there anything more fundamental than knowing how your body extracts energy and nutrients from food? Dr Giulia Enders covers all aspects of the gut and how it relates to your mind, mood, hormones, and health, and does it all in a style that’s accessible to the 10yr old and enjoyable to the seasoned professional.
Also, she’s freakin’ hilarious.”
— Ali Binazir, M.D., M.Phil.







Ms Enders is in the category of people who’ve found Western Medicine less than helpful for what ailed them and decided to search for better answers.
As a teenager, she developed a mysterious skin condition that covered her skin with sores. Treatments offered by her doctors were largely ineffective. She knew she’d been delivered by Caesarian Section, which doesn’t allow the mother’s probiotic bacteria to transfer properly to the infant so C. section babies start life at a microbial disadvantage.
At age 17,  Enders decided to experiment with treating what she realized was the underlying cause of her skin condition, a digestive disorder, rather than rely on treating only her symptoms, as her doctors had been doing. She read up on current gastroenterological research, took probiotic and mineral supplements to support her gut microbiota and improve her digestion, eliminated dairy products and almost all gluten, and continued fine tuning her diet. Her skin problems cleared up – and her fascination with the intestines began.
As she gained knowledge from her reading, experimented on herself, and got better, she was also struck by how little most lay people and doctors seemed to know about the workings of the gut and its important influence on the health of the rest of the body – including whether we develop cancers and other diseases; on our feelings, decision making processes, self-awareness, moods, weight, and even morality. Learning as much as she can about the gut and teaching people about it have become her life’s work. (Coburn, 2015)
And she’s very good at it.



(Source: www.healthyfoodhouse.com)
(Source: www.healthyfoodhouse.com)



Here’s a two-part TV interview with Giulia Enders from 13 February 2015, after her book had become a best seller. Watch both parts – you’ll be glad! They’re in English, delightful, and short. (SkavlanTalkShow.com, 2015) Among other interesting topics, she talks about why it’s much healthier to squat than sit while pooping.





A big thanks to Mike Robotti for sending the Coburn article about Giulia Enders my way.







Coburn, J. (2015). A German Writer Translates a Puzzling Illness Into a Best-Selling Book. New York Times. See: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/20/world/europe/a-german-writer-translates-a-puzzling-illness-into-a-best-selling-book.html?smprod=nytcore-iphone&smid=nytcore-iphone-share&_r=0

Enders, G. (2012). Darm mit Charme (Gut Charm). Science Slam Berlin. See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFsTSS7aZ5o

Enders, G. (2015). Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body’s Most Underrated Organ. See: http://www.amazon.com/Gut-Inside-Story-Bodys-Underrated/dp/1771641495

SkavlanTalkShow.com. (2/13/2015). Interview with Giulia Enders, Parts 1 & 2. See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szp6mFMX5w0




© Copyright 2015 Joan Rothchild Hardin. All Rights Reserved.


DISCLAIMER:  Nothing on this site or blog is intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

More About Poop – Sloths, A Poop Museum in Tokyo & More




(Source; www.dumpaday.com
(Source; www.dumpaday.com



Maybe you regard the whole idea of pooping as icky and weird and you’d rather not think about it. Or maybe the  topic fascinates you.
The facts of the matter are: We all poop, our food is the fuel that keeps our bodies going and the composition of that fuel is very important to the state of our health, and checking out the characteristics of our poop  provides valuable information about our health.
This post was spurred by some of the more unusual information about poop I’ve come across on the journey this website and blog about the gut microbiome has taken me on.





(Source: www.sweetadditions.net)
(Source: www.sweetadditions.net)







About 75% water. A smelly combination of fiber, living and dead bacteria, other cells and mucus. Soluble fibers from foods like beans and nuts that have been broken down during digestion to form a gel-like substance. Foods packed with harder-to-digest insoluble fiber (such as carrots, corn and oat bran)  may emerge looking pretty much unchanged.
This depends on what we’ve eaten. For instance, beets produce bright red stool, leafy veggies can cause green stool and some medications can turn out white or clay-colored stool. Jet-black poop could be from having taken iron supplements or having eaten black licorice –  or it could be a sign of bleeding in the upper GI tract.
Perfect human poop is log- and slightly S-shaped, not broken up into pieces. These are the ones that easily slide out of the body when we go. That ideal shape is achieved by eating enough fiber to bulk up the stool and act as glue to keep it together on its way out of the body. Pencil-thin poops might be a sign of rectal cancer narrowing the opening the stool has to pass through.
Particularly pungent smelling BMs are often a sign of infection. For example, anyone who’s suffered through a Clostridium difficule infection can tell you if it has returned by the particular smell of their poop. Terrible-smelling poop likely indicates the presence of the parasite giardia in the stomach, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s or celiac disease.
Some doctors say we should have a good poop every day. Others say the important thing is that you poop at a rate that’s consistent for you. A significant decrease in output could be the result of eating less fiber or working out less often. A decrease or increase in output could come from a GI disorder, an overactive or underactive thyroid, or colon cancer. Culture can also play a role: Indians in South Asia produce three times as much poop as the British due to the higher fiber content in the typical Indian diet. The average American man produces about one-third of a pound of poop daily – the equivalent of 5 tons in a lifetime.


Food typically takes anywhere from 24-72 hours to make the trip from mouth to anus. Diarrhea is your stool on speed – the result of food passing much too quickly through the large intestine, where most of its water content gets absorbed. Loose stool can be the result of stomach viruses, food-borne illness, food allergies or intolerances, or other digestive problems.


Constipation occurs when the stool takes too long passing through so its water content becomes much reduced.
Floaters are often an indication of high fat content in the stool, possibly from malabsorption of the fat and nutrients from your food. They’re often associated with celiac disease or chronic pancreatitis. Vegetarians and vegans often have floaters too.
Having some gas is normal. It’s produced as bacteria in the colon break down the food passing through. The body absorbs some of this gas into the bloodstream. From there it gets breathed out through the lungs. The rest of it gets expelled from the other end. The American College of Gastroenterology says it’s normal to pass gas 10-18 tunes a day.
A fecal transplant involves placing stool from a person with a relatively healthy gut microbiota in the colon of a person infected with a Clostridium difficile infection or someone with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to stop debilitating diarrhea. The trillions of good (probiotic) bacteria in the healthy person’s stool can help re-colonize the ailing digestive tract of the sick person.
Studies indicate a positive correlation between time spent on the toilet and developing hemorrhoids (swollen blood vessels inside and around the anus). The longer you’re sitting there trying to poop out hard stool, the more pressure you’re exerting on those vessels. Hard stool is generally a result of a diet containing too little fiber. Americans consume an average of 10-15 grams of fiber a day. We should be consuming 30-35 grams to keep us regular, prevent constipation and hemorrhoids.


Wash your hands well with soap and water after using the toilet or you may be spreading a bit of poop around via your phone. British researchers collected samples from 400 cell phones in 12 cities and found 1 in 6 of them were contaminated with fecal matter.
Still want to keep your cell phone next to your plate while you’re eating?






The Parrot Fish eats coral and poops out sand, helping create many of the small islands and beaches in and around the Caribbean.


The Parrot Fsh eats coral and poops sand.  This has led to the creation of many small islands and beaches in and around the Caribbean. (Source: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)
(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)



Scientists were monitoring whale stress levels by analyzing their poop and found that their stress was greatly reduced immediately following the 9/11 attacks. It turns out this was due to all air traffic being halted, which calmed the oceans of external low frequency noise. Whales communicate with each other at these low frequencies.


Scientists were monitoring whale stress levels by analyzing their poop and found that their stress plummeted immediately following the 9/11 attacks. It turns out this was due to all air traffic being halted, which calmed the oceans of external low frequency noise which whales use to communicate. (Source: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)
(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)





(Source: www.ebaumsworld.com)
(Source: www.ebaumsworld.com)



3 billion people around the world still relay on charcoal and dung to cook their food.


(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com)
(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com)




In the early years of the 20th century, the voluminous shit produced by  horses used for drawing carriages and delivery vans was causing so much pollution in city streets that automobiles were regarded as a healthier alternative.
(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)
(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)


Wombats, those adorable Australian marsupials, have cube-shaped poop which they use to remember where they live.


(Source: en.wikipedia.org)
(Source: en.wikipedia.org)



(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)
(See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/)




Japanese toilet manufacturer giant, Toto, has produced a motorbike that runs exclusively on human poop.  The bike also writes messages in the air as it whizzes along – and the toilet storage tank can talk.
Toto hopes the bike will help raise awareness about human poop in the environment and lead to a 50% reduction of  CO2 emissions in bathrooms  by 2017.
See Poop-Powered Bike: TOTO Releases Motorbike Toilet That Runs On Feces.
(Source: japandailypress.com)
(Source: japandailypress.com)


The creative Japanese again – there’s an exhibit at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo called TOILET!? HUMAN WASTE & THE EARTH’S FUTURE.  It features a giant toilet bowl slide and provides children with poop-shaped hats. Aside from being fun, its goal is serious – to teach visitors about human waste and toilets and especially to draw attention to the 2.5 billion people worldwide who don’t have access to sanitation or toilets.
You can read about the museum here. The article also has some wonderful videos.


(Source: kotaku.com)
(Source: kotaku.com)






3-TOED SLOTHS AND THEIR ODD POOPING HABITS (Soniak, 2014) (Thompson, 2014)



The strange pooping habits of a 3-toed sloth. (Source: animallistnews)
(Source: animallistnews)


3-toed sloths spend most of their time hanging around chilling out in trees amid the tropical rainforest canopy in Central and South America. They are very slow moving, live on the green leaves growing on their home tree, have very slow metabolisms … and poop only once a week. That’s unusual – and so is this: They slowly make their way down their tree to the rainforest floor to take that weekly dump.
Scientists have pondered why the animals would leave the safety of the treetops and risk getting eaten by predators just to take a shit.
A Mammalian Ecologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison named Jonathan Pauli says, “It’s like if you had to go to the bathroom, and you were programmed to go run a 5K on an interstate before you could go to the bathroom. It’s really risky, and it’s really energetically costly.”
That weekly trek also uses up a hefty proportion of their daily energy production.
So why do they do it?
Scientists have several theories about this:
Pooping near a sloth’s home tree fertilizes the tree’s roots.
Its poop notifies other sloths of its location so they can mate.
The most complicated theory has to do with the variety of organisms that make their home in sloths’ thick fur: algae, fungi, arachnids and insects – including moths from the genus Cryptoses, AKA sloth moths. These moths depend on their host sloth’s weekly poop trek. Females lay their egg’s in the sloth’s dung. The emerging larva then feed on the dung until they become adults, when they fly up to move into the fur of their own sloth.
Researchers’ thinking is that the sloths are just as dependent on the moths. They found that sloths having more moths on them also had more nitrogen-rich hair and more algae growth. Analyzing the contents of the sloths’ stomachs, the researchers found the algae in there had been easily digestible and was rich in carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
So maybe the risky pooping process keeps the moths around and provides the sloths with a nutritious supplement to their nutrient-poor leaf diet .


And perhaps you thought your toilet habits might be a bit odd ….




(Source: 8tracks.com)
(Source: 8tracks.com)



Here’s a video about these sloths and why they do what they do: The Strange Pooping Habits of a 3-Toed Sloth
And another video offering some other possible explanations: Mystery of the Pooping Sloth – Science on the Web #55.



An adult three toed sloth climbs back up a tree in Costa Rica after doing its business below. (Source: Smithsonian.com. Image: Zach Peery)
An adult three toed sloth climbs back up a tree in Costa Rica after doing its business below. (Source: Smithsonian.com. Image: Zach Peery)


Thanks to Kelley O’Donnell for telling me about sloths and their mysterious poop habits.




(Source: www.pinterest.com)
(Source: www.pinterest.com)




 This is my earlier post about poop: THE LOWDOWN ON POOP.





EBaumsWorld.com. (2014). 24 Poop-Related Facts. See: http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/84306997/

EverydayHealth. (2014). 11 Icky But Interesting Facts About Poop. EverydayHealth.com. See: http://www.everydayhealth.com/digestive-health-pictures/icky-but-interesting-facts-about-poop.aspx#05

Hardin, J.R. (3/15/2014). The Lowdown on Poop. AllergiesAndYourGut.com. See: http://allergiesandyourgut.com/2014/03/15/lowdown-poop/

Huffington Post. (10/7/2011). Poop-Powered Bike: TOTO Releases Motorbike Toilet That Runs On Feces. See: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/07/poop-powered-bike-japanese-toto_n_1000111.html

Soniak, M. (2014). The Mystery of the Sloth Poop. Mental-Floss.com. See: http://mentalfloss.com/article/54839/mystery-sloth-poop

Thompson, H. (2014). What Drives a Sloth’s Ritualistic Trek to Poop? Scientists trace the odd bathroom behavior to relationships with bacteria and moths that inhabit their fur. Smithsonian.com. See: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/articles/what-drives-a-sloths-ritualistic-trek-to-poop-180949419/#lM94g3hzS1b8kiaU.99

ViralNova.com. (2014). This New Museum In Tokyo Looks Like A Sick Joke, But Kids LOVE It. You’re Not Gonna Believe It. See:  http://www.viralnova.com/japanese-poop-museum/



© Copyright 2014 Joan Rothchild Hardin. All Rights Reserved.


DISCLAIMER:  Nothing on this site or blog is intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.



The Lowdown on Poop

Whether you care to think about it or not, all creatures – including us – eat and poop. The quality of that poop tells a lot about the state of our gut and overall health so it’s actually worth taking a look and not just flushing as quickly as possible.


Doctors at the Bristol Royal Infirmary Hospital in England found patients reluctant to talk about their poop so they cleverly came up with  the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Patients could now provide valuable information about their health by simply pointing to their stool type on the chart without feeling excessively embarrassed.



The chart illustrates the seven stool types:
Type 1
These stools resemble hard nuts or lumps, have spent the longest in the colon and are often very difficult to pass. People with Type 1 stools are very constipated.
Type 2
These stools are sausage-shaped but still have visible lumps. They are somewhat difficult to pass. People with Type 2 stools are slightly constipated.
Type 3
These stools are also sausage-shaped and better formed than type 2 but with visible segments. They are normal stools.
Type 4
These well-formed stools are shaped like a smooth sausage or snake and are easy to pass.  These stools are ideal, indicating a healthy colon.
Type 5
Although these stools are easy to pass, they are comprised of many soft blobs with clear edges, the result of having inadequate fiber in the diet.
Type 6
These stools are soft, fluffy and mushy with ragged edges, indicating the presence of inflammation in the gut.
Type 7
These stools are almost entirely liquid with no solid pieces, indicating more serious inflammation than Type 6. (See Gut Symbiosis and Dysbiosis and Inflammation for information on how inflammation is harmful to the body.)